时间:2020-01-04 来源:银行考试网


I have closely watched my generation, known as The Millennials. for 29 years now. Joel Stein wrote an extensive piece on Millennials and he remains rather optimistic about our potential.

I hesitate to share his optimism because of a paradox (矛盾的现象)we seem to exhibit, namely, that there are more avenues for us to entertain ourselves than ever before, yet we are more bored than ever before.

Entertainment has never been more varied. We have more cable channels, television shows, and movies than ever before. Internet providers allow instant viewing of almost any movie or television program ever created. Social drinking and partying are also widely available for Millennials. Every generation develops these habits at a certain age, but Millennials seem to be extending this phase of life as they postpone marriage.

Some of this is undoubtedly due to The Great Recession. Millennials arc having a difficult time finding jobs; only 47 percent of 16-to-24-year-olds are employed, the smallest share since government stared recording data in 1948.

But do Millennials respond to these economic troubles by doing whatever it takes to make ends meet? Hardlv. In fact, of the four generations Pew Research has data for, the Millennial generation does not cite work ethic (勤奋工作)as distinctive of itself. Millennials want to save the world, but they sit and wait for that world-changing opportunity to be handed to them. Instead of working 2-3 jobs, launching a business, or doing what it takes to succeed, they retreat. Millennials may be the first generation to have a lower standard of living than their parents, but with this response to adversity (逆境), perhaps deservingly so.

Much ink has been spilled in management books discussing how to get the most out of these youths in the workplace. Largely, they come to the same conclusion: Millennials are entitled, over-confident, and expect too much too quickly. We should not be surprised. Today’s young adults were raised by parents who made sure to boost their self-esteem at every turn, telling them they could achieve whatever they set their minds to, and handing out prizes for the sixth place.

71. What does the author of the passage think of Millennials?

A. They show little interest in entertainment.

B. They are not confident about their ability.

C.They enjoy an easy life due to high technology.

D.They may not have bright prospects for success.

72. How do Millennials feel about their life?

A.They can hardly do anything about it.

B.There is little in it to get excited about.

C.It is not as good as their parents'.

D.It is full of opportunities for success.

73. In what way are Millennials different from previous generations according to Pew Research?

A.They spend less time socializing.

B.They are indifferent to others.

C.They do not value hard work.

D.They are more independent.

74. What should Millennials do according to the author?

A. Remain optimistic in face of adversity.

B.Start a business as early as possible.

C.Make full use of new opportunities.

D.Take action to change their situation.

75. Why are Millennials over-confident about themselves?

A.They have been spoiled by their parents.

B.They can always get whatever they expect.

C.They are misguided by management books.

D.They think they are young and energetic.

It is all very well to blame traffic jams, the cost of petrol and the quick pace of modern life, but manners on the roads are becoming horrible. Everybody knows that the nicest men become monsters behind the wheel. It is all very well, again, to have a tiger in the tank, but to have one in the driver’s seat is another matter altogether. You might tolerate the odd road-hog, the rude and inconsiderate driver, but nowadays the well-mannered motorist is the exception to the rule. (Perhaps the situation calls for a “Be Kind to Other Drivers” campaign, otherwise it may get completely out of hand.)

Road politeness is not only good manners, but good sense too. It takes the most cool-headed and good-tempered of drivers to resist the temptation to revenge when subjected to uncivilized behavior. On the other hand, a little politeness goes a long way towards relieving the tensions of motoring. A friendly nod or a wave of acknowledgment in response to an act of politeness helps to create an atmosphere of goodwill and tolerance so necessary in modern traffic conditions. But such acknowledgments of politenessare all too rare today. Many drivers nowadays don’t even seem able to recognize politeness when they see it.

However, misplaced politeness can also be dangerous. Typical examples are the driver who brakes violently to allow a car to emerge from a side street at some hazard to following traffic, when a few seconds later the road would be clear anyway; or the man who waves a child across a zebra crossing into the path of oncoming vehicles that may be unable to stop in time. The same goes for encouraging old ladies to cross the road wherever and whenever they care to. It always amazes me that the highways are not covered with the dead bodies of these grannies.

A veteran driver, whose manners are faultless, told me it would help if motorists learnt to filter correctly into traffic streams one at a time without causing the total blockages that give rise to bad temper. Unfortunately, modern motorists can’t even learn to drive, let alone master the subtler aspects of roadsmanship. Years ago the experts warned us that the car ownership explosion would demand a lot more give-and-take from all road users. It is high time for all of us to take this message to heart.

76.According to this passage, troubles on the road are primarily caused by _____.

A. people’s attitude towards the road-hog

B. the rhythm of modern life

C.the behavior of the driver

D.traffic conditions

77. The sentence “You might tolerate the odd road-hog... the rule.” (Para. 1) implies that _____.

A.our society is unjust towards well-mannered motorists

B. rude drivers can be met only occasionally

C. the well-mannered motorist cannot tolerate the road-hog

D.nowadays impolite drivers constitute the majority of motorists

78. By “good sense,” the writer means _____.

A.the driver’s ability to understand and react reasonably

B.the driver’s prompt response to difficult and severe conditions

C.the driver’s tolerance of rude or even savage behavior

D.the driver’s acknowledgement of politeness and regulations

79. Experts have long pointed out that in the face of car-ownership explosion, _____.

A.road users should make more sacrifice

B.drivers should be ready to yield to each other

C.drivers should have more communication among themselves

D.drivers will suffer great loss if they pay no respect to others

80. In the writer’s opinion, _____.

A.strict traffic regulations are badly needed

B.drivers should apply road politeness properly

C.rude drivers should be punished

D.drivers should avoid traffic jams

In the atmosphere, carbon dioxide acts rather like a one-way mirror—the glass in the roof of a greenhouse which allows the sun’s rays to enter but prevents the heat from escaping.

According to a weather expert’s prediction, the atmosphere will be 3°C warmer in the year 2050 than it is today, if man continues to burn fuels at the present rate. If this warming up took place, the ice caps in the poles would begin to melt, thus raising sea level several metres and severely flooding coastal cities. Also, the increase in atmospheric temperature would lead to great changes in the climate of the northern hemisphere, possibly resulting in an alteration of the earth’s chief food-growing zones.

In the past, concern about a man-made warming of the earth has concentrated on the Arctic because the Antarctic is much colder and has a much thicker ice sheet. But the weather experts are now paying more attention to West Antarctic, which may be affected by only a few degrees of warming: in other words, by a warming on the scale that will possibly take place in the next fifty years from the burning of fuels.

Satellite pictures show that large areas of Antarctic ice are already disappearing. The evidence available suggests that a warming has taken place. This fits the theory that carbon dioxide warms the earth.

However, most of the fuel is burnt in the northern hemisphere, where temperatures seem to be falling. Scientists conclude, therefore, that up to now natural influences on the weather have exceeded those caused by man. The question is: Which natural cause has most effect on the weather?

One possibility is the variable behavior of the sun. Astronomers at one research station have studied the hot spots and “cold” spots (that is, the relatively less hot spots) on the sun. As the sun rotates, every 27.5 days, it presents hotter or “colder” faces to the earth, and different aspects to different parts of the earth. This seems to have a considerable effect on the distribution of the earth’s atmospheric pressure, and consequently on wind circulation. The sun is also variable over a long term: its heat output goes up and down in cycles, the latest trend being downward.

Scientists are now finding mutual relations between models of solar-weather interactions and the actual climate over many thousands of years, including the last Ice Age. The problem is that the models are predicting that the world should be entering a new Ice Age and it is not. One way of solving this theoretical difficulty is to assume a delay of thousands of years while the solar effects overcome the inertia(惯性)of the earth’s climate. If this is right, the warming effect of carbon dioxide might thus be serving as a useful counte-balance to the sun’s diminishing heat.

81.It can be concluded that a concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere would _____.

A.prevent the sun’s rays from reaching the earth’s surface

B.mean a warming up in the Arctic

C.account for great changes in the climate in the northern hemisphere

D.raise the temperature of the earth’s surface

82. The article was written to explain _____.

A. the greenhouse effect

B.the solar effects on the earth

C.the models of solar-weather interactions

D.the causes affecting weather

83. Although the fuel consumption is greater in the northern hemisphere, temperatures there seem to be falling. This is _____.

A.mainly because the levels of carbon dioxide are rising

B.possible because the ice caps in the poles are melting

C.exclusively due to the effect of the inertia of the earth’s climate

D. partly due to variations in the output of solar energy

84. On the basis of their models, scientists are of the opinion that _____.

A.the climate of the world should be becoming cooler

B.it will take thousands of years for the inertia of the earth’s climate to take effect

C.the man-made warming effect helps to increase the solar effects

D.the new Ice Age will be delayed by the greenhouse effect

85. If the assumption about the delay of a new Ice Age is correct, _____.

A.the best way to overcome the cooling effect would be to burn more fuels

B.ice would soon cover the northern hemisphere

C.the increased levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere could warm up the earth even more quickly

D.the greenhouse effect could work to the advantage of the earth

Some people believe that international sport creates goodwill between the nations and that if countries play games together they will learn to live together. Others say that the opposite is true: that international contests encouragefalse national pride and lead to misunderstanding and hatred. There is probably some truth in both arguments, but in recent years the Olympic Games have done little to support the view that sports encourageinternational brotherhood. Not only was there the tragic incidentinvolving the murder of athletes, but the Games were also ruined by lesser incidentscaused principally by minor national contests.

One country received its second-place medals with visible indignation after the hockey(曲棍球)final. There had been noisy scenes at the end of the hockey match, the losers objecting to the final decision. They were convinced that one of their goals should not have been disallowed and that their opponents’victory was unfair. Their manager was in a rage when he said:“This wasn’t hockey. Hockey and the International Hockey Federation are finished.” The president of the Federation said later that such behavior could result in the suspension of the team for at least three years.

The American basketball team announced that they would not yield first place to Russia, after a disputable end to their contest. The game had ended in disturbance. It was thought at first that the United States had won, by a single point, but it was announced that there were three seconds still to play. A Russian player then threw the ball from one end of the court to the other, and another player popped it into the basket. It was the first time the USA had ever lost an Olympic basketball match. An appeal jury debatedthe matter for four and a half hours before announcing that the result would stand. The American players then voted not to receive the silver medals.

Incident of this kind will continue as long as sport is played competitively rather than for the love of the game. The suggestion that athletes should compete as individuals or in non-national teams might be too much to hope for. But in the present organization of the Olympics there is far too much that encourgesaggressive patriotism.

86.According to the author, recent Olympic Games have _____.

A.created goodwill between the nations

B.bred only false national pride

C.barely showed any international friendship

D.led to more and more misunderstanding and hatred

87.What did the manager mean by saying, “... Hockey and the International Hockey Federation are finished”?

A.His team would no longer take part in international games.

B. Hockey and the Federation are both ruined by the unfair decisions.

C. There should be no more hockey matches organized by the Federation.

D.The Federation should be dissolved.

88.The basketball example implied that _____.

A.too much patriotism was displayed in the incident

B.the announcement to prolong the match was wrong

C.the appeal jury was too hesitant in making the decision

D. the American team was right in rejecting the silver medals

89.The author gives the two examples in Paragraphs 2 and 3 to show _____.

A.how false national pride led to undesirable incidents in international games

B.that sportsmen have been more obedient than they used to be

C.that competitiveness in the games discourages international friendship

D.that unfair decisions are common in Olympic Games

90.What conclusion can be drawn from the passage?

A.The organization of the Olympic Games must be improved.

B. Athletes should compete as individual in the Olympic Games.

C. Sport should be played competitively rather than for the love of the game.

D.International contests are liable for misunderstanding between nations.

Is language, like food, a basic human need without which a child at a critical period of lifecan be starved and damaged? Judging from the drastic experiment of FrederickⅠin the thirteenth century, it may be. Hoping to discover what language a child would speak if he heard nomother tongue, he told the nurses to keep silent.

All the infants died before the first year. But clearly there was more than lack of languagehere. What was missing was good mothering. Without good mothering, in the first year of lifeespecially, the capacity to survive is seriously affected.

Today no such severe lack exists as that ordered by Frederick. Nevertheless, some childrenare still backward in speaking. Most often the reason for this is that the mother is insensitive tothe signals of the infant, whose brain is programmed to learn language rapidly. If these sensitiveperiods are neglected, the ideal time for acquiring skills passes and they might never be learned soeasily again. A bird learns to sing and to fly rapidly at the right time, but the process is slow andhard once the critical stage has passed.

Experts suggest that speech stages are reached in a fixed sequence and at a constant age, butthere are cases where speech has started late in a child who eventually turns out to be of high IQ.At twelve weeks a baby smiles and makes vowel-like sounds; at twelve months he can speak simple words and understand simple commands; at eighteen months he has a vocabulary of three tofifty words. At three he knows about l, 000 words which he can put into sentences, and at fourhis language differs from that of his parents in style rather than grammar.

Recent evidence suggests that an infant is born with the capacity to speak. What is specialabout man’s brain, compared with that of the monkey, isthe complex system which enables achild to connect the sight and feel of, say, a toy-bear with the sound pattern “toy-bear”. Andeven more incredible is the young brain’s ability to pick out an order in language from the mixtureof sound around him, to analyze, to combine and recombine the parts of a language in new ways.

But speech has to be induced, and this depends on interaction between the mother and thechild , where the mother recognizes the signals in the child’s babbling (咿呀学语) , grasping and smiling, and responds to them. Insensitivity of the mother to these signals dulls the interactionbecause the child gets discouraged and sends out only the obvious signals. Sensitivity to thechild’s non-verbal signals is essential to the growth and development of language.

91. The purpose of Frederick Ⅰ’s experiment was _____.

A.to prove that children are born with the ability to speak

B.to discover what language a child would speak without hearing any human speech

C.to find out what role careful nursing would play in teaching a child to speak

D. to prove that a child could be damaged without learning a language

92. The reason some children are backward in speaking is most probably that _____.

A. they are incapable of learning language rapidly

B.they are exposed to too much language at once

C.their mothers respond inadequately to their attempts to speak

D.their mothers are not intelligent enough to help them

93. What is exceptionally remarkable about a child is that

A.he is born with the capacity to speak

B.he has a brain more complex than an animal’s

C.he can produce his own sentences

D.he owes his speech ability to good nursing

94. Which of the following can NOT be inferred from the passage?

A.The faculty of speech is inborn in man.

B.Encouragement is anything but essential to a child in language learning.

C.The child’ s brain is highly selective.

D.Most children learn their language in definite stages.

95. If a child starts to speak later than others, he will

A. have a high IQ

B.be less intelligent

C.be insensitive to verbal signals

D.not necessarily be backward

Scratchy throats, stuffy noses and body aches all spell misery, but being able to tell if the cause is a cold or flu may make a difference in how long the misery lasts.

The American Lung Association (ALA) has issued new guidelines on combating colds and the flu, and one of the keys is being able to quickly tell the two apart. That’s because the prescription drugs available for the flu need to be taken soon after the illness sets in. As for colds, the sooner a person starts taking over-the-counter remedy, the sooner relief will come.

The common cold and the flu are both caused by viruses. More than 200 viruses can cause cold symptoms, while the flu is caused by three viruses—flu A, B and C. There is no cure for either illness, but the flu (流感) can be prevented by the flu vaccine (疫苗), which is, for most people, the best way to fight the flu, according to the ALA. But if the flu does strike, quick action can help. Although the flu and common cold have many similarities, there are some obvious signs to look for.

Cold symptoms such as stuffy nose, runny nose and scratchy throat typically develop gradually, and adults and teens often do not get a fever. On the other hand, fever is one of the characteristic features of the flu for all ages. And in general, flu symptoms including fever and chills, sore throat and body aches come on suddenly and are more severe than cold symptoms.

The ALA notes that it may be particularly difficult to tell when infants and preschool age children have the flu. It advises parents to call the doctor if their small children have flu-like symptoms.

Both cold and flu symptoms can be eased with over-the-counter medications as well. However, children and teens with a cold or flu should not take aspirin for pain relief because of the risk of Reye syndrome (综合症),a rare but serious condition of the liver and central nervous system.

There is, of course, no vaccine for the common cold. But frequent hand washing and avoiding close contact with people who have colds can reduce the likelihood of catching one.

96.According to the author, knowing the cause of the misery will help _____ .

A. shorten the duration of the illness

B. the patient buy medicine over the counter

C. the patient obtain cheaper prescription drugs

D. prevent people from catching colds and the flu

97.We learn from the passage that _____ .

A. one doesn’t need to take any medicine if he has a cold or the flu

B. aspirin should not be included in over-the-counter medicines for the flu

C. delayed treatment of the flu will harm the liver and central nervous system

D. over-the-counter drugs can be taken to ease the misery caused by a cold or the flu

98.According to the passage, to combat the flu effectively, _____ .

A. one should identify the virus which causes it

B. one should consult a doctor as soon as possible

C. one should take medicine upon catching the disease

D. one should remain alert when the disease is spreading

99.Which of the following symptoms will distinguish the flu from a cold?

A. A stuffy nose.

B. A high temperature.

C. A sore throat.

D. A dry cough.

100.If children have flu-like symptoms, their parents _____ .

A. are advised not to give them aspirin

B. should watch out for signs of Reye syndrome

C. are encouraged to take them to hospital for vaccination

D. should prevent them from mixing with people running a fever.


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