Environmental issues raise a host of difficult ethical questions, including the ancient one of the nature of intrinsic value. Whereas many philosophers in the past have agreed that human experiences have intrinsic value and the utilitarian at least have always accepted that the pleasures and pains of nonhuman animals are of some intrinsic significance,this does not show why it is so bad if dodos become extinct or a rain forest is cut down. Are these things to be regretted only because of the loss to humans or other sentient creatures? Or is there more to it than that? Some philosophers are now prepared to defend the view that trees,rivers,species (considered apart from the individual animals of which they consist),and perhaps ecological systems as a whole have a value independent of the instrumental value they may have for humans or other sentient creatures.
Our concern for the environment also raises the question of our obligations to future generations. How much do we owe to the future? From a social contract view of ethics or for the ethical egoist,the answer would seem to be nothing. For we can benefit them, but they are unable to reciprocate. Most other ethical theories,however,do give weight to the interests of coming generations. Utilitarian,for one,would not think that the fact that members of future generations do not exist yet is any reason for giving less consideration to their interests than we give to our own,provided only that we are certain that they will exist and will have interests that will be affected by what we do. In the case of,say,the storage of radioactive wastes, it seems clear that what we do will indeed affect the interests of generations to come.
The question becomes much more complex however,when we consider that we can affect the size of future generations by the population policies we choose and the extent to which we encourage large or small families. Most environmentalists believe that the world is already dangerously overcrowded. This may well be so, but the notion of overpopulation conceals a philosophical issue that is ingeniously explored by Derek Parfit in Reasons and Persons (1984).What is optimum population? Is it that population size at which the average level of welfare will be as high as possible? Or is it the size at which the total amount of welfare — the average multiplied by the number of people — is as great as possible? Both answers lead to counterintuitive outcomes, and the question remains one of the most baffling mysteries in applied ethics.
32. The first paragraph is mainly about ______________.
A. the intrinsic value of human experiences
B. the intrinsic value of the experiences of nonhuman animals
C. the intrinsic value of ecological system as a whole
D. an ancient ethical question about the nature of intrinsic value
33. We owe nothing to the future generations_______________.
A. in the author’s opinion
B. from a social contrast view of ethics
C. for a utilitarian
D. for most environmentalists
34. Population policy we take should be considered ________________.
35. According to this passage, optimum population ________________.
A. refers to the population size at which the average level of welfare will be as high as possible
B. refers to the population size at which the total amount of welfare will be as great as possible
C.is a difficult philosophical issue which remains to be resolved in the future
D.is a difficult philosophical issue which Derek Parfit has successfully settled in Reasons and Persons
36. The proper title for this passage should be _______________.
A. A Mystery in Applied Ethics
B. Our Obligations to Future Generations
C. Environmental Ethics
D. Environmental issues
Imagine you went to a restaurant with a date; had a burger, paid with a credit card, and left. The next time you go there, the waiter or waitress, armed with your profile data, greets you with, “Hey Joe, how are you? Mary is over there in the seat you sat in last time. Would you like to join her for dinner again?” Then you find out that your burger has been cooked and your drink is on the table. Forget the fact that you are with another date and are on a diet that doesn’t include burgers. Sound a little bizarre? To some, this is restaurant equivalent of the Internet. The Net’s ability to profile you through your visits to and interactions at websites provides marketers with an enormous amount of data on you — some of which you may not want them to have.
Are you aware that almost every time you access a website you get a “cookie”? Unfortunately, it’s not the Mrs. Reid’s type. A cookie on the Internet is a computer code sent by the site to your computer — usually without your knowledge. During the entire period of time that you are at the site, the cookie is collecting information about your interaction, including where you visit, how long you stay there, how frequently you return to certain pages, and even your electronic address. Fill out a survey to collect free information or samples, and marketers know even more about you — like your name, address, and any other information you provide. While this may sound scary enough, cookies aren’t even the latest in technology. A new system called I-librarian Alexa — named for the legendary third century B.C. library in Alexandria, Egypt — does even more. While cookies track what you are doing at one site, Alexa collects data on all your Web activity, such as which sites you visit next, how long you stay there, whether you click on ads, etc. All this information is available to marketers, who use it to market more effectively to you. Not only do you not get paid for providing the information, you probably don’t even know that you are giving it.
37. In the restaurant story, the author may most probably think the waiter or waitress was _____________.
38. The author makes up the restaurant story in order to ______________.
A. show the good service offered in some Web restaurants
B. criticize some restaurants for too considerate service
C. show the Internet’s ability to collect data on you
D. prove the incredible power of the Internet
39. What can be learned about “cookie” from the second paragraph?
A. It was first created by Mrs. Reid.
B. It collects information on you without your knowing it.
C. It’s some information sent to your computer about yourself.
D. It’s the latest in technology.
40. What can be learned about “Alexa” from the second paragraph?
A. Alexa is named after an ancient hero in Egypt.
B. Alexa is installed in libraries.
C. Alexa can collect all the necessary data on you.
D. Alexa can provide more data for marketers than a cookie.
解析：本题考查文章主旨。第一段中，第一句话点明环境问题引起了很多道德伦理问题，紧接着Whereas many philosophers in the past have agreed that human experiences have intrinsic value and the utilitarians at least have always accepted that the pleasures and pains of nonhuman animals are of some intrinsic significance, this does not show why it is so bad if dodos become extinct or a rain forest is cut down. 指出，虽然很多哲学家认为人类经验是具有内在固有的价值，而且功利论者至少认为非人类动物的快乐和痛苦具有某些内在价值，但是并不足以解释我们为什么认为…，ABC三项为D选项的补充说明，因此第一段主要探讨的是内在固有市场这个古老的伦理问题，故本题答案为D。
解析：本题考查事实细节。根据第二段From a social contract view of ethics or for the ethical egoist, the answer would seem to be：nothing. 从社会契约道德角度来说，或者道德自我主义的角度出发，答案是什么都没有。故本题答案为B。
解析：本题考查事实细节。根绝第三段The question becomes much more complex however, when we consider that we can affect the size of future generations by the population policies we choose and the extent to which we encourage large or small families. 但是当我们考虑到，我们所采取的人口和家庭政策，将会影响到下一代的人口数量，问题就变得复杂了。故本题答案为C。
解析：本题考查推理判断。文章最后一段提出What is optimum population? 继而在最后指出Both answers lead to counterintuitive outcomes, and the question remains one of the most baffling mysteries in applied ethics.两个答案都会导致违反直觉的结果，而且这个问题成为应用道德中最令人费解的一个谜。因此，optimum population只能是留给未来解决的哲学难题。故本题答案为C。
解析：本题考查推理判断。作者引用餐馆的故事的目的是为了引出主题，由此可以定位至文章第一段的最后两句话。“To some, this is restaurant equivalent of the Internet. The Net’s ability to profile you through your visits to and interactions at websites provides marketers with an enormous amount of data on you — some of which you may not want them to have.”“餐馆和互联网是一样的。网络通过你的访问和在网站上的交互来描述你的能力，给营销人员提供了大量的数据，这些数据可能是你并不希望他们拥有的。”A选项表达是为了展现一些餐馆好的服务，与主题不符；B选项表达是为了批判一些餐馆过于体贴的服务，层面较为浅显；C选项表达是为了指出互联网收集数据的能力，与题意相符；D选项表达是为了证明互联网不可思议的能力，不如C选项中直接指出“收集数据的能力”更为具体。故本题答案为C。
解析：本题考查细节理解。由题干中的cookie可以定位至第二段。A选项表达它是由Mrs. Reid创造，文中并没有提到，故排除；B选项表达它在你不知道的情况你收集关于你的信息。由第二段第三四句话可以推断出，“在站点的整个时间段内，cookie收集关于你交互的信息，包括访问的地点、在那里逗留的时间、返回某些页面的频率，甚至电子地址”，符合题意；C表达它是一些发到你电脑上的关于你自己的信息，与原意不符；D表达是一种最新的科技，“While this may sound scary enough, cookies aren’t even the latest in technology.”“尽管听起来很恐怖，但是cookie却不是最新的科技发明”，因此D不对。故本题答案为B。
解析：本题考查细节理解。由题干中的Alexa定位至第二段的后半部分。“A new system called I-librarian Alexa — named for the legendary third century B.C. library in Alexandria, Egypt — does even more.”“一个新的系统称为i-librarian Alexa，它是以传说中的公元前第三世纪的埃及亚历山大的图书馆命名的，它可以做到甚至更多。”A选项表达它是以埃及的一个英雄命名的，不符合题意；B选项表达它是在图书馆安装的，不符合题意；C选项表达它可以收集关于你的所有必要信息，根据“Alexa collects data on all your Web activity”，可以看出它只是收集你在网络中的信息，故C不符合题意；D选项表达比起cookie，它可以为营销者提供更多的信息，符合题意。故本题答案为D。